Proudly Announcing the Renewal of our Award for Excellence in Patient Partnership

PPQM 2016

Here it is, all shiney and bright, and lovely!  Our PPQM renewal!

PPQM stands for Patient Partnership Quality Mark.  It’s awarded to clinics that meet the Royal College of Chiropractor’s strict standards of excellence in meeting patient expectations.

We work really hard towards being the best that we can be, and to provide the best care that we possiblty can to each and every individual patient.

It makes us very proud to achieve recognition for this from the RCC, and to be able to give you that extra bit of peace of mind.

Well done team.

Leah Rose

PS – apologies for the dreadful photography, it was my best effort!!

Top Ski Tips from the BCA

skiingWinter sports

If you are planning on enjoying some winter sports this season, the British Chiropractic Association has some great tips to help you and all your party stay safe and happy on the slopes.



Beware of Day Three!
Despite common assumptions that a ski injury is most likely to occur on the first day Matthew Bennett, BCA Chiropractor and the first to work with the British Alpine Ski team, tells us: “After three days of skiing or snowboarding using unaccustomed muscles, we become confident but are physically tired and our capability isn’t necessarily matched to that confidence”.

If you are skiing or snowboarding this season, the BCA has some tips to ensure you can stay safe on the slopes:

Before you hit the slopes
Don’t just sit there – Exercising through squats, sit ups and cycling is also good to tease the right muscles.
It’s a balancing act – Balance is the single most important factor.   A wobble board can be used to improve balance and build up ankle muscles. For a thorough ankle work-out, rocking heel to toe is good for snowboarders and left to right is best for skiers.
Jump around – Use a mini trampoline to work all those ‘skiing’ muscles.
•  Roll with it – Roller blading is perfect practice and will help you develop a good posture so you look like a pro on the slopes.
Check it out – Most skiers or snowboarders find turning one way easier than the other. Poor technique might not be the problem, so talk to a chiropractor for advice.

Out on the slopes

Hot and Cold – Warm up first. Start off gently rather than heading first for the black runs and round the day off with a stretch.
• Take plenty of breaks – Overexertion will ruin your holiday. Moderate the length of ski or board time and listen to your body. Pain is a warning sign, don’t ignore it.
Liquid lunch – Drink plenty of water and isotonic drinks to avoid dehydration and stay clear of alcohol, tea and coffee.
Wrap up – Make sure clothing is warm and adequate for the cold weather and don’t forget hat and gloves.
Put the boot in – No matter how many lessons, skiers or boarders won’t improve without the right boots and this is where most put their first foot wrong. Don’t make this mistake of choosing on comfort alone. Get a moulded footbed from the ski shop first, as this improves fit, comfort and control. Opt for a shop with a wide range of boots so you are spoilt for choice.
What a bind – If you are prone to going ‘knock-kneed’ when you ski, look out for lateral alignment. Wedges expertly placed under the binding can make a huge difference.
Carry on – Always be careful when carrying skis or boards. Leave them standing upright so you don’t have to bend to pick them up. Carry them over your shoulder, swapping shoulders regularly.
Ice is nice – With an acute injury, use ice rather than heat.

Tread carefully – A great deal of people are injured by slipping on ice at the ski resort, not just on the slopes. Wear shoes with a deep treaded sole and use strap-on studs for ski boots to help keep you upright.

It still holds true that it is always better to take preventive measures in order to reduce the risks of injuries. Take note of these guidelines to ensure you keep on the safe side this season. Matthew adds: “Prevention is still better than cure and these tips can help you avoid injuries because just one joint or muscle out of line can be a disaster when you are travelling at 40 miles per hour”.

Dated: 13 February 2014

Simon Rose: Certified Chiropractic Extremities Practitioner

Principal Chiropractor and clinic owner Simon Rose has always taken a strong professional interest in sports injuries. His reputation amongst amateur and professional sports men and women is enviable, as is evident from our testimonials page. He has successfully treated the knee, foot, ankle, shoulders and hips for over ten years – not only in sports people but also in both children and the elderly who may be experiencing pain (for example in the knee or hip) due to reasons other than sports, like “wear and tear” or posture.

Simon can now state that he is an advanced extremities practitioner, as he has now obtained the official title of Certified Chiropractic Extremities Practitioner (CCEP), under the Internationally acclaimed expert on the subject of
extremity adjusting, Dr Kevin Hearon DC CCSP CCEP. Dr Hearon has accumulated over 5,000 hours of post graduate study in x ray pathology, extremity adjusting including sports and athletic injuries, physiotherapy and muscle testing.

Extremity injuries (foot, gait, posture, ankle, knee, hip, wrist, elbow, jaw and shoulder) are suffered at one time or another by all of us. Simon will diagnose the problem that you are experiencing and he will treat the cause, with the underlying objective of preventing it from recurring as much as is possible

If you are struggling at the moment then call 01452 309372 today to book your consultation appointment

Congratulations Kate!

Well done Kate on achieving your Level 2 Fitness Instruction qualification! In her own words, Rehab at this clinic just got EVEN better.

This is a professionally recognized qualification that enables Kate to prescribe exercise inside or outside a gym environment. She completed detailed anatomy and physiology modules including principles of fitness and exercise, and received further training on how to put exercise programs together that best suit the needs and expectations of individuals working towards specific goals.

Within a rehab environment this enables her to accurately and specifically alter and adapt individuals’ programs if necessary, and to tailor rehab precisely to each person depending on their body’s response to the exercises.

Knee Pain: Iliotibial Band Syndrome, or Runner’s Knee

What is the Iliotibial Band?

The Ilio Tibial Band (ITB) is the longest tendon in the body, it originates from the anterior iliac crest outer lip, anterior border of the ilium and the outer surface of anterior superior iliac spine. As well as from the Gluteus Maximus and Tensor Fascia Lata muscles. (In normal words that is an area of the upper outer edge of the pelvis, the muscles originating from the very front upper outer region of the pelvis and part of your bum muscle). Previously thought of as just a connective piece of tissue, recent research has found that tendons and fascia do in fact often contain smooth muscle fibers. ‘Smooth’ muscle fibers are the type more often found in the gut, ‘striated’ fibers are found in the muscles of movement attached to the joints. It aids in leg abduction (leg raising directly out to the side) and force distribution through the leg, it is also an important player in producing fascial tension that supports the Thoraco Pelvic Canister and therefore the lower back.

So What Happens?


ITBS basically is due to repetitive rubbing of the band on the outer part of the knee (lateral femoral condyle), this leads to thickening of the band over time and eventually irritation that takes a number of months to resolve if not managed correctly. Self management of the lower limbs and building good movement patterns when not in pain are key to preventing this injury from coming back.

What can I do About it?

ITB Syndrome can be self managed in a variety of ways- a foam roller, tennis ball and an Ice pack are your key utensils to getting over this condition. Many rehab ‘specialists’ will recommend simply using a foam roller on the ITB to stretch it out (youtube it to see). However, there is so much more you can do to help this problem. It requires a lot of time and effort but the results will come a lot faster than simply ice and ITB foam rolling. A home treatment plan is not within the scope of this post and causes will differ from one person to another so a bio-mechanical assessment by a movement specialist is what we would recommend getting and a second opinion is always something worth considering. Just remember, the whole lower limb has to function correctly, not just one area. It is all related – foot, knee and hip, though it is the connecting musculature and fascia that are the cause of the problem with some areas more related to the ITB than others.

Sports Chiropractors at this clinic are movement specialists with further qualifications in sports science. We are constantly reading the latest books and research to enable us to get your body functioning better (not just the latest rehabilitation fad!). If you are suffering from ITBS or repeatedly suffer, then contact us for more info and advice.


Award Winning Clinic and Chiropractors – That’s Us!!!

It’s exciting times for the Longlevens Chiropractic & Sports Injury Clinic!  On 30th January 2013 we will be awarded the prestigious Patient Partnership Quality Mark (PPQM) 2013 – 2015 by the College of Chiropractor’s, who were themselves recently awarded Chartered status by the Queen.

The College of Chiropractor’s states: “The College of Chiropractors believes that chiropractic services should be centred on the users of those services. The College supports the delivery of services that are flexible and responsive to the needs of patients, acknowledging them as partners in their own care.” (Tim Jay DC FCC, President)

The award recognises the achievement of outstanding levels of care and service provided to patients, in areas including cleanliness and safety, communication and patient education, privacy, accessibility and record keeping.  More information will follow and of course pictures, after the 30th January ceremony!

In addition to the PPQM award, one of the Longlevens Chiropractic & Sports Injury Clinic’s Chiropractors, Danny Adams, will be presented with an award identifying him as Outstanding PRT Chiropractor of the Year on the College of Chiropractor’s postgraduate Training Scheme, under Mentor and Clinic Director, Simon Rose.

Congratulations also to Danny (who has been busy!) for recently achieving his International Chiropractic Sports Science Diploma, awarded by the International Federation of Sports Chiropractic.  This post doctoral qualification ensures extremely high standards of theoretical and practical competency in treating sports injuries and qualifies him to participate in major national and international events such as the Olympic Games.

More information will follow soon about all of the above.



Rugby Injuries: The Stinger



In this post I will be explaining what occurs and what is felt with a stinger injury and I will also give some advice on what to expect with regards to recovery.

“Stingers”, also known as “Burners”, occur when a persons neck is taken too far to one side too quickly whilst at the same time the shoulder is depressed downwards too far and too quickly also. The usual mechanism is as a result of a tackle during Rugby or American Football, the resulting pain is described as stinging or burning sensation. The reasons for these symptoms are because the nerves exiting the neck that innervate the arm (via the “brachial plexus”) are stretched during the tackle and therefore injured.

The type of pain that is felt is regarded as a sharp shooting neurological type pain with regions of stinging and burning locally and often distally down the arm. The pain location can vary, though the most commonly affected area is that which is innervated by the C5 nerve as this is the nerve where most of the over stretching is likely to occur as the shoulder is depressed too far downwards. As you can see in the picture below, the C5 nerve root is the highest exiting nerve that innervates the arm from the neck region.
Look at the yellow nerves exiting the spine in to the arm in this picture, C5 is the highest level.

The regions of skin innervated by C5, C6, C7, C8 and T1 are shown here in this picture, when suffering from a Rugby stinger you may feel discomfort along one or more of these regions with C5 being the most likely.

The muscles that you may find weak as a result of a stinger playing Rugby are most likely to be those innervated by C5 and then decreasing in likelihood C6, C7, C8, T1.

As you can see the main muscles innervated by C5 and C6 are those surrounding the shoulder girdle, therefore expect dysfunction to occur in this region. The rate of healing for a nerve is very slow so make sure you are patient and perform rehab sensibly. I would recommend seeing a specialist (e.g chiropractor) for advice and guidance throughout this process as too little or too much rehab or treatment at the wrong time could decrease your recovery rate and prolong your return to action.

Shin Splints: Danny Adams Explains

The term ‘Shin Splints’ (also known as “runner’s leg”) is in fact a general umbrella term used to describe quite a few different lower leg injuries. Each of the injuries can be grouped in to one of four different categories depending on where the area of pain is felt. I will mention each individual injury but not cover each one in depth. I will, however, give an example of one of the injuries from each of the 4 shin splint group types so as you have an idea of how each of the 4 types presents. I will however not be covering how to treat these areas as that is a whole different kettle of fish and I would recommend seeing a specialist if you feel you have any of the following to receive a personal treatment plan.

A summary of the four types: 1. muscular (various lower limb muscle strains) – tibialis posterior and anterior syndromes, soleus syndrome 2. periosteal (most outer layer of a bone) – periostitis of tibia 3. fascial (Fascia) – exertional compartment syndrome 4. osseous (bone) – tibial and fibular stress fractures

1. Muscular

Example: Tibialis posterior Syndrome

This type of shin splints essentially is as a result of a strain or incomplete tear of Tibialis Posterior:

  • caused by biomechanical dysfunction (esp. overpronation) of the foot and ankle.
  • pain usually appears at the beginning of a workout and later disappears, only to reappear afterwards.
  • palpable tenderness along the medial side of the lower leg.
  • tenderness is also elicited by resisting plantar flexion and inversion of the foot radiography helps to rule out stress fracture of tibia/ tibial periostitis.
  • additional treatment – lower leg strap (like elbow strap) for redistribution of muscle tension.

2. Periosteal

Tibial periostitis/ Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS)

This type of shin splints involves painful inflammation of the outermost layer of bone called the periosteum specifically along the central border of the shin, usually the distal 1/3 .

  • Originally thought to be related to stress along the posterior tibialis muscles and tendons causing myositis, fasciitis and periostitis, it is now believed to be related to periostitis of the soleus insertion along the posterior medial tibial border. As a result of excessive pulling of the muscle.  Excessive pronation or prolonged pronation of the foot causes an eccentric contraction of the soleus, resulting in periostitis.
  • May be as a result of a change in running distances, speed, form, stretching, footwear, or running surfaces.
  • Tenderness along the anterior side of the tibia and sometimes slight swelling and thickening above the bone can be noticed.
  • Additional treatment – ice and NSAID, soft running surface, cushioning of the heel.

3. Fascial

Exertional Compartment Syndrome (ECS)

This type of shin splints involves thick sheaths of Fascia divide the muscles of the leg into four compartments each with their own muscles, blood and nerve supply. The four compartments are the ‘Anterior compartment’, ‘Lateral Compartment’, ‘Posterior Deep compartment’ and the ‘Posterior Superficial Compartment’. The mechanism involved is as a result of fascia that is too tight along with an increase in muscle volume within the compartment as a result of increased activity which can lead to a decrease in compartment space around the muscles. This therefore increases the pressure within the compartment and diminishes the compartment’s veins ability to return blood therefore increasing the pressure further. If really severe the arterial blood supply in this compartment can also be cut off.

  • ECS is usually exercise induced aching leg pain and a sense of fullness, both over the involved compartment. These symptoms are almost always relieved by rest, usually within 20 minutes, only to recur if exercise is resumed.
  • Both legs is common
  • Activity related pain begins at a predictable time after starting exercise or after reaching a certain level of intensity
  • Many individuals with anterior ECS describe mild foot drop or paraesthesia (or both) which are amplified by physical exertion.
  • The most common compartment involved is the Anterior 50-60% then the Deep Posterior 20-30% and the remaining 10-20% is between the Lateral and Superficial Posterior compartments.
  • Home advice involves Ice and reducing the level of strain, though for an active individual fasciotomy provides a quicker and long-term solution (surgery to release the tight fascia and therefore decrease the pressure in the involved compartment.
  • This particular condition is notoriously difficult to manage conservatively, if there are any practitioners out there with suggestions then I would love to hear their experiences.
  • Do not confuse with an acute compartment syndrome which is in fact a medical emergency.

4. Bone

This type of shin splints involves stress fractures of the Tibia (shin bone)

  • as a result of repeated sub-maximal loading.
  • dull pain, swelling and palpable tenderness is confined within 2-3 cm in diameter.
  • Insidious onset.
  • Increased pain with activity/ decrease with rest.
  • Pain usually limited to fracture site.
  • Pain on percussion and vibration.

If you are still unsure as to which of these problems you are experiencing or you wish to get more advice then feel free to message me for more advice. Otherwise I would recommend an experienced manual therapist such as a sports Chiropractor.

Why Do I Need to Use Ice?

Its amazing… amazing how many times I have asked patients during our first meeting and consultation if they have iced their injury before coming in to see me. The answer 90% of the time is, “I haven’t” or “I have been using heat but not ice”. In mine and a lot of others opinions, Icing is by far and away the best thing you can do to get yourself back on the road to recovery as fast as possible in the early stages of a muscle or joint injury. Here in this post I explain why…

Probably your whole life you have been told if you have burned or bruised yourself that “you need to put ice or ice cold water on it to stop the swelling”. Well the same rule applies for your muscles and skeleton, this includes your spine by the way!, they all respond to ice in the same way as if you bruise your arm. Let’s take back pain for example, a similar thing is occurring with an episode of back pain that occurs with a bruise. Something in your back has been damaged as a result of weakness or poor function and the body is reacting by trying to protect itself using inflammation. The same as if you had bumped and subsequently bruised yourself.

Inflammation has 5 components; pain, heat, redness, swelling and loss of function. All five are reduced as a result of icing. Ok, now think about what I have just told you and consider this: If you just bruised your arm, would you put heat on it to try to make it better while it is still sore and hurting? (oh dear god, please say no…) Remember the 5 components of inflammation??, that’s right, heat was one of them!, therefore you would be encouraging inflammation if you used it, not good. This again also applies to your back, if your back is in pain it is usually due to inflammation, so don’t use heat!. The only time I recommend the use of heat is during a warm up before performing strenuous exercise and certainly not for someone in pain. Once a person is out of pain and functioning correctly I only encourage heat in the form of giving your muscles a good rub to make them more pliable if you know they are noticeably tight.

Right, now I want you to apply what I have just told you to your day-to-day life. If you had just suffered an episode of back pain, would you now consider it a good idea to have a hot bath?? or a hot shower??, or go in the hot jacuzzi down at you leisure club??. I hope you can see what I am saying here (and no, I am not saying don’t wash, that wouldn’t help any of us!). What I am trying to say is that you may be applying heat to your back pain without realising it, by performing day-to-day activities like those I just mentioned. What I would like you to consider when in an episode of back pain is turning down the temperature. When you have a shower or bath, reduce the temperature a bit (not too much!) and make sure you ice your back straight after for 10-15 minutes or find a cooler alternative to cleaning yourself, like using wash towels.

To conclude, wrap up some ice cubes in a damp cloth or wrap an ice pack in damp paper towels or a cloth and apply to the problem area. Perform 10-15 minutes of icing every 2 hours, five times a day or as close to that as possible. This is the perfect routine to help get yourself through the early stages of injury. I would also recommend seeing your Chiropractor or other manual therapist as there are some instances where the pain may in fact not be coming from the parts of the body you suspect. In which case your Chiropractor or other manual therapist will help you identify the correct place to apply your ice pack whilst also providing treatment, information, advice and guidance to aid the healing process and help prevent it happening again!.

When to use ice: Acute sprains and strains, Acute inflammatory processes: arthritis, bursitis, tendonitis myositis, and neuritis, Acute trauma, Acute and chronic muscle spasm.

When not to use ice: Cold hypersensitivity (test a small non-painful area first if worried), a vasospastic disorder (Vasospastic disorders are conditions in which the vessels of the extremities do not dilate properly.), Systemic complications, Raynaud’s Phenomenon or Certain malignancies (seek advice). Do not apply if you are a weakened individual; Old age, Infancy, Cachexic. Or if you have severe varicose veins, myocardial weakness or high blood pressure.

I hope this has helped you understand a bit more about your body and Chiropractic, If you have any questions on this topic send me an e-mail at

If you live in Gloucester or surrounding areas and are interested my Chiropractic services and what I can do to help you, then book an appointment to see Danny at the Longlevens Chiropractic and Sports Injury Clinic on 01452 309372

Preventing Injury on Matchday: A Chiropractor’s and a Footballer’s Perspective

Warming up, as every footballer should know its an absolute necessity to a footballers game for these reasons, i) to prevent Injury, ii) increase performance, iii) prolong your playing career, iv) reduce delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). From my 17 years of playing for and working with numerous teams I strongly feel the importance of a warm up is not emphasised enough by teams to their players at pretty much all levels of the game. This post is here to highlight the most common problems I have experienced and my tips on how to correct them;

  1. Number one, ‘not increasing blood flow before stretching’, if you fail to do this, you are just asking for an injury, especially on those cold winter mornings when everyone is feeling cold and tight. You need to get your heart rate up and blood flowing to the muscles of your limbs so that they warm up, loosen and receive enough oxygen and nutrients ready for the stretching and skills aspect of your warm up. I’d recommend having a run back and forth across the pitch while performing actions that encourage blood flow to the muscles of your limbs. Actions such as jumping, bending to touch the ground and rotations while running are a few that are great to get the blood flowing round your body. Try to involve your upper limbs as well as it will all contribute to the effect of increasing your heart rate and encouraging blood flow to the limb muscles.
  2. The number two problem I have seen at pretty much every team I have played for is too much ‘Static stretching’. ‘Static’ stretches are stretches that are performed while not moving, a common example is sitting on the floor with the soles of your feet together to stretch out your groin. There is some confusion in football teams about the use of static stretching. here is what I recommend, make sure almost, if not all, al the stretches in your routine are dynamic, ‘dynamic stretches’ are basically just repetitive movements that replicate the most common action in which the muscle will be elongated during a match. A well-known example is repeatedly kicking through the air to stretch the back of your leg ‘The Hamstrings’. The reason for using mainly dynamic stretching is because research suggests ‘static stretches’ surprisingly “do not improve muscle length once the muscle is in motion“, such as during a match (Silveira et al, 2010). Another study suggests that static “stretches may decrease your ability to sprint repeatedly“, therefore affecting your acceleration and performance (Dawson et al, 2009). If however, you are intent on including static stretches in your warm up prior to a match, there is evidence to suggest that your performance should not be affected as long as you “follow-up your stretch routine with a moderate to high intensity skill based sport specific activity” (Taylor et al, 2009). an example of a ‘skill based sport specific activity’ for football would be something like a ‘piggy in the middle’ passing routine. If you need ideas or examples of dynamic stretches for football I’d highly recommend consulting a fitness instructor or manual therapist.
  3. Number 3 is ‘poor stretching technique’. As the old saying goes: “if your going to do something, you might as well do it properly!“. Therefore make sure you are performing your dynamic stretches correctly!. A common mistake I see even the best professional players making when warming up is performing a kick through with the intention of stretching their hamstrings but getting the technique incorrect. What they fail to do is isolate the hamstring by not ensuring they keep their knee extended straight enough. Any good manual therapist can tell you that when you test a hamstring’s muscle length you must keep the knee straight otherwise you are also assessing the gluteus maximus length. Try it yourself, perform a kick through stretch allowing your knee to bend and then perform it again but with an almost completely straight knee (bent slightly to about 5 degrees), feel the difference?. I would recommend performing sets of the kicks twice, one lot of sets with and one lot of sets without a straight knee so that you stretch both your hamstring and gluteus maximus. If everyone focused on their pre-match stretching technique then maybe hamstring tears would be less common in football. Remember the saying, “Fail to prepare, then prepare to fail”, well the same saying applies to your muscles as well!. If you need technique advice, I’d recommend consulting a fitness professional or manual therapist.
  4. Number 4 is the amount of time spent stretching, over stretching can in fact lead to a decrease in performance, one study suggests any longer than 4 minutes stretching one muscle group can lead to a decrease in its performance (Taylor et al, 2009), I would recommend around 2 minutes per muscle group during your routine.
  5. Time for number 5, ‘the importance of a cool down’, after many studies there is in fact very little evidence supporting the theory that you should perform a cool down. As an alternative, I would recommend an ice bath or a very cold shower/bath for around 20 minutes. Only do this if you do not have any other major health concerns (see bottom of post) as it is quite an extreme (but effective) option. Or you can apply ice/cold packs when and wherever the body is sore. This will ensure any inflammation occurring in your body (which is guaranteed after 90 minutes of football) will be reduced, and trust me, if you can bear the cold it is worth it in the long run. You should notice a marked decrease in muscle soreness and tightness in the days following a match. I would also recommend statically and dynamically stretching muscles regularly in your own time. Commonly tight muscles to be aware of in footballers are your hamstrings, hip flexors and calves. The more you do when you’re not playing, the better your performance will be when match day arrives.

It’s never too late to change your warm up routine, just because the team is being told to do something, you don’t have to!, it’s your body!. Now you have read this post you should be able to make an informed decision as to whether what you are being told to do is correct. Take ownership of your body and make sure you are well aware of your it’s needs so that you give yourself the best opportunity to perform well and without the risk of injury.

I would also like to suggest, for all you parents with young stars in the making, that you take the time to make sure your children are being told to warm up properly. Mistakes made during the growing years can adversely affect their performance and injury susceptibility in future years at a time when they should be reaching their peak. There is nothing worse than having a career in sport fail due to something that could have been avoided if small changes such as these had been made earlier.

Who ever said that football was just a game eh?…

  • When NOT to use ice/cold packs, ice/cold baths/showers: Cold should not be applied to weakened individuals, Infants, people with circulatory disturbances, Raynaud`s disease, peripheral, vascular disease, severe varicose veins, myocardial weakness, high blood pressure.
  • Never apply cold (or heat) to: Areas of reduced sensation, infected areas, potential malignancy

References: Dawson B., Sim A., Wallman K., Guelfi K., Young W.. (2009). Effects of static stretching in warm-up on repeated sprint performance. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 12 (supplement 1), S60. Silveira G., Sayers M., Waddington G.. (2010). Effect of static and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in the warm-up. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 12 (supplement 2), e10-e11. Taylor, K.L., Sheppard, J.M., Lee, H., Plummer, N.. (2009). Negative effect of static stretching restored when combined with a sport specific warm-up component. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport.12 (6), 657-661.

I hope this information has helped you understand a little more about your body, If you have any questions on this topic send me an e-mail at

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